Introduction: The Kurds and the Kurdish Question in the Middle East

  title={Introduction: The Kurds and the Kurdish Question in the Middle East},
  author={Hamit Bozarslan and Cengiz Gunes and Veli Yadirgi},
In the past decade, the Kurdish question has re-established itself at the heart of the regional political debates at a time when the Middle East is once again engulfed in conflict and violence. On numerous occasions during the second half of the twentieth century, Kurdish nationalism has managed to generate and maintain strong appeal amongst Kurdish populations in Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria, but these states have perceived Kurdish ambitions as a threat to their national security and regional… 


When the Present Sends Back to the Past: Reading the Kurdish Issue in the 2010s
Abstract Since 2011, the emergence of the Islamic State (IS) and its anti-Kurdish violence, the new cold war of Iran and Russia versus Turkey, and the Tayyip Erdogan regime’s coercive policies
Kurds and the State in Iran: The Making of Kurdish Identity
In early 1946, Kurds declared an independent republic in north-west Iran. The Mahabad Republic, as it became known, was the first time that the Kurds experienced self-rule in the modern era. Although
The Kurds and Middle Eastern “State of Violence”: the 1980s and 2010s
Though a macro-level analysis this article examines the evolution of the Kurdish issue since the occupation of Iraq in 2003 and the Syrian crisis in 2011, underlining the necessity of a comparison
The Rise of Red Kurdistan
Current literature on twentieth century Kurdish history overwhelmingly covers Kurdish populations and national movements within the borders of Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria. This article, hoin
The Kurds in post‐revolutionary Iran and Iraq
Who are the Kurds? The Kurdish question has been one of the oldest festering problems in the Middle East subregion. The Kurds, a Muslim ethnic group numbering some 18 million people, inhabit several
Kurdish Transnational Politics and Turkey's Changing Kurdish Policy: The Journey of Kurdish Broadcasting from Europe to Turkey
The bulk of scholarship on EU–Turkey relations has focused mainly on intergovermental or state–society relations, while the larger literature on enlargement and Europeanization has hardly paid any
The Demise of the Kurdish Emirates: The Impact of Ottoman Reforms and International Relations on Kurdistan during the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
In the first half of the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire put an end to the Kurdish emirates which had existed within its confines since the conquest of Kurdistan and its division between the
Political Movements and Leverage Points: Kurdish Activism in the European Diaspora
The 1980 military coup in Turkey proved to be a pivotal event for Kurdish radicalization in Western Europe. Hundreds of thousands of Turkish citizens entered Germany, France, the Netherlands, and
Turkey''s Kurdish question: critical turning points and missed opportunities
The deteriorating Kurdish problem in Turkey is neither new nor is it beyond resolution. This article focuses on two sets of occasions that help us understand the dynamics and chances for the
  • H. Özoğlu
  • Sociology
    International Journal of Middle East Studies
  • 2001
The era culminating in World War I saw a transition from multinational empires to nation-states. Large empires such as the Austro-Hungarian and the Ottoman searched for ways to cope with the decline