Intrinsic ripples in graphene.

@article{Fasolino2007IntrinsicRI,
  title={Intrinsic ripples in graphene.},
  author={A Fasolino and Jan H. Los and Mikhail I. Katsnelson},
  journal={Nature materials},
  year={2007},
  volume={6 11},
  pages={
          858-61
        }
}
The stability of two-dimensional (2D) layers and membranes is the subject of a long-standing theoretical debate. According to the so-called Mermin-Wagner theorem, long-wavelength fluctuations destroy the long-range order of 2D crystals. Similarly, 2D membranes embedded in a 3D space have a tendency to be crumpled. These fluctuations can, however, be suppressed by anharmonic coupling between bending and stretching modes meaning that a 2D membrane can exist but will exhibit strong height… Expand
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