Intravenous self-administration of ethanol in beta-endorphin-deficient mice.

  title={Intravenous self-administration of ethanol in beta-endorphin-deficient mice.},
  author={Nicholas J Grahame and Malcolm J Low and Christopher L. Cunningham},
  journal={Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research},
  volume={22 5},
Extensive research on both human alcoholics and in animal models of alcoholism has implicated the release of endogenous opioids in the consumption of ethanol. Various experiments using opioid antagonists have indicated that these drugs cause both humans and animals to decrease their consumption of ethanol. However, it remains unclear exactly which of the endogenous opioids mediates the rewarding effects of ethanol. The present experiment used intravenous self-administration of ethanol to… CONTINUE READING