Intratendinous ossification in birds: A review

  title={Intratendinous ossification in birds: A review},
  author={James C. Vanden Berge and Robert W. Storer},
  journal={Journal of Morphology},
Intratendinous ossification (tenostosis; Tendo ossificans) is a distinct structural form feature of the avian musculoskeletal system with different definitions in terms of morphogenesis, resultant morphology, and functional role(s). Interpretation of these structural elements and their pattern(s) among avian taxa at different systematic levels is reviewed with regard to age‐related changes in tendon, form features in avian phylogeny, and adaptive features in biomechanics and kinematics of… 

Sesamoids in tetrapods: the origin of new skeletal morphologies

A dynamic model is proposed to account for part of skeletal phenotypic diversity: during evolution, sesamoids can become displaced, attaching to and detaching from the long bone epiphyses and diaphysis.

Histological evidence for a supraspinous ligament in sauropod dinosaurs

The formation of this structure appears to have been a non-pathological metaplastic ossification, possibly induced by the continuous tensile forces applied to the element.

Biomechanics of ossified tendons in ornithopod dinosaurs

  • C. Organ
  • Biology, Geography
  • 2006
The lattice of ossified tendons stiffened the trunk and tail nearly equally in Brachylophosaurus, indicating the evolution of a postural function by passively supporting the epaxial musculature in maintaining a horizontal vertebral column.


Despite various anatomical locations and large differences in body size, ossified tendons were found to possess uniform microstructure even in specimens that do not normally experience intratendinous ossification (such as Spinostropheus and Camarasaurus).

Anatomy and Histology of the Fibrocartilago humerocapsularis in Some Species of European Wild Birds

From the data obtained in this study, there does not appear to be any correlation between ossification and the weight of the prey lifted, wing shape, and aging, and in fact, in the Hooded Crow, the oSSification seemed to be correlated with the mechanical stimulation of flying.


Tendon histology indicates that hadrosaurian ossified tendons developed in step with the skeletal system and that ossification was not induced by biomechanical stresses.

Evolution of the patellar sesamoid bone in mammals

A meta-analysis takes an initial step toward a conclusive synthesis of form, function, development and genetics across mammalian evolution by collating available data and elucidating areas of promising future inquiry.

Occurrence and distribution of sesamoid bones in squamates: a comparative approach

Developmental data on two squa-mate species are discussed, data on the onset of the squamate sesamoids and the mus-cles they are associated to are provided, and the results show that Mabuya mabouya and Liolaemus albiceps exhibited rather similar ontogenetic patterns.

Articular soft tissue anatomy of the archosaur hip joint: Structural homology and functional implications

The osteological correlates identified here will inform systematic and functional analyses of archosaur hindlimb evolution and provide the anatomical foundation for biomechanical investigations of joint tissues.

Thoracic epaxial muscles in living archosaurs and ornithopod dinosaurs.

  • C. Organ
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology
  • 2006
A phylogenetic perspective is used to determine muscle homologies in living archosaurs (birds and crocodylians), evaluate how the apparent disparity evolved, and reconstruct the thoracic epaxial muscles in ornithopod dinosaurs.



The evolution of some traction epiphyses in birds and mammals.

Parsons suggested (1904, 1908) that many of these epiphyses represented pre-existing intratendinous sesamoids, which had become secondarily fused to the main bone.

The growth rate of the tarsometatarsus bone in birds

The variation in bone growth rates amongst the Class Aves was examined as a step towards learning about the aetiology of growth deformities, and terrestrial and arboreal birds had relatively longer legs than aquatic and aerial ones.

A fine structural study of the development of the chick flexor digital tendon: a model for synovial sheathed tendon healing.

The development of the synovial sheathed flexor digital tendon in the chick was studied by light and electron microscopy in 12-day embryos to 22-day post-hatched chickens to appear appropriate for the experimental study of tendon injuries related to the human hand.

On Sesamoid and Supernumerary Bones of the Limbs.

This bone has a cartilaginous nucleus in the second month embryo, and corresponds to the tubercle of the scaphoid common in some mammals. I found this bone well represented in the tarsal range of the

Migration of tendinous insertions. I. Cause and mechanism.

  • J. Dörfl
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of anatomy
  • 1980
The cause and mechanisms of the migration of tendons and ligaments were studied in young rabbits. Three techniques were used: (1) Marking of insertions, the neighbouring periosteum and the diaphysis

Tensile properties of calcified and uncalcified avian tendons

The mechanical properties of turkey and heron leg tendons have been investigated in dynamic tensile tests and the contribution made by elastic strain energy storage to lowering the cost of running is reduced.

Comparative anatomy and significance of the sesamoid bone of the peroneus longus muscle (os peroneum).

The os peroneum appears as a regressive form of the typical bone observed in the above families, which is in the process of disappearing, probably in relation to the disappearance of the functional importance of the peroneus longus muscle to the loss of the hallux opposability.

Migration of tendinous insertions. II. Experimental modifications.

  • J. Dörfl
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of anatomy
  • 1980
It is concluded that the direct cause of the migration of muscular and ligamentous insertions is periosteal growth.

Ossification and mineralization in the tendons of the chicken (Gallus domesticus).

The development of ossification of the tendons has been described and the appearance of osteoblasts and resorption cavities and then the latter became lined by osteoblast, and osteones were formed.