Intraspinal therapy for the treatment of chronic pain: a review of the literature between 1990 and 2005 and suggested protocol for its rational and safe use.

@article{Raffaeli2006IntraspinalTF,
  title={Intraspinal therapy for the treatment of chronic pain: a review of the literature between 1990 and 2005 and suggested protocol for its rational and safe use.},
  author={William Raffaeli and Jessica Andruccioli and Donatella Righetti and Alessandro Caminiti and Marco Balestri},
  journal={Neuromodulation : journal of the International Neuromodulation Society},
  year={2006},
  volume={9 4},
  pages={290-308}
}
The administration of intrathecal drugs has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of both cancer pain and noncancer pain in patients who do not respond well to conventional treatment, in those who are unable to tolerate side-effects of opioids, and in those who constantly require significant increases in drug dosing. Although morphine represents the "drug of choice" for intrathecal administration, the use of alternative drugs (e.g., bupivacaine, clonidine, and hydromorphone) appears… CONTINUE READING
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Biological consequences of long-term intrathecal administration of opioids

  • W Raffaeli, BG Salmosky-Dekel
  • Minerva Anestesiol
  • 2005
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