Biomaterials for orbital implants and ocular prostheses: overview and future prospects.
BACKGROUND Many different types of orbital implants have been used after enucleation. Associated complications such as infection, exposure, extrusion, and ptosis have been reported. OBJECTIVE To describe 342 consecutive patients who underwent enucleation with intraorbital implant placement at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Fla, during the past 10.5 years and their complications. METHODS Medical records of orbital implantation after enucleation performed by 3 surgeons (T.G.M., D.T., and T.J.) were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data, ocular diagnosis, previous ophthalmic surgery, implant characteristics, and postoperative complications were described in all patients, with a minimum of 2 months' follow-up, using a standardized format. RESULTS Eleven complications were observed in 7 patients. Four patients had exposure of the implant, and 1 of these patients developed associated infection. Three patients developed pyogenic granulomas, 1 patient developed ptosis requiring surgical intervention, 1 patient had long-term orbital discomfort, and 1 patient developed an inclusion cyst. CONCLUSION Complications after enucleation with orbital implant placement are minimal and are observed with both porous and acrylic orbital implants.