PTSD is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder and many patients do not respond sufficiently to current treatments. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is suggested to provide resilience to the development of PTSD and co-morbid depression. Injections of NPY to the rodent brain are anxiolytic. Recently we showed that intranasal delivery of NPY to rats before or immediately after exposure to single prolonged stress (SPS) animal model of PTSD prevented development of many biochemical and behavioral symptoms of PTSD, indicating its prophylactic potential. Here, we investigated whether intranasal NPY might provide benefits once symptoms have already developed. One week after exposure to SPS stressors, animals were given intranasal NPY or vehicle and tested on elevated plus maze 2h or 2 days later. The NPY treated rats had lower anxiety-like behavior than vehicle treated rats as indicated by more entries into open arms and fewer into closed arms, lower anxiety index, higher risk assessment and unprotected head dips and reduced grooming time. Their anxiety index was similar to that of unstressed controls. On most of these variables there was no effect of time interval and rats displayed similar overall changes 2h or 2 days after the infusion. Moreover, intranasal NPY led to reduced depressive-like behavior, assessed by forced swim test. Thus, intranasal NPY reversed several behavioral impairments triggered by the traumatic stress of SPS and has potential for non-invasive PTSD therapeutic intervention.