Intranasal immunotherapy is more effective than intradermal immunotherapy for the induction of airway allergen tolerance in Th2-sensitized mice.

@article{Takabayashi2003IntranasalII,
  title={Intranasal immunotherapy is more effective than intradermal immunotherapy for the induction of airway allergen tolerance in Th2-sensitized mice.},
  author={Kenji Takabayashi and Lev A Libet and Dugald D Chisholm and Jose J Zubeldia and Anthony Adam Horner},
  journal={Journal of immunology},
  year={2003},
  volume={170 7},
  pages={3898-905}
}
Immunotherapy (IT) by injection more readily induces clinical tolerance to stinging insects than to respiratory allergens. However, while systemic immunization induces adaptive responses systemically, the induction of mucosal immunity generally requires local Ag exposure. Taken together, these observations suggest that the poor success rate of systemic IT for asthma could be a consequence of inadequate immune modulation in the airways. In support of this position, investigations presented in… CONTINUE READING
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