Intranasal immunization with genetically detoxified diphtheria toxin induces T cell responses in humans: enhancement of Th2 responses and toxin-neutralizing antibodies by formulation with chitosan.

@article{McNeela2004IntranasalIW,
  title={Intranasal immunization with genetically detoxified diphtheria toxin induces T cell responses in humans: enhancement of Th2 responses and toxin-neutralizing antibodies by formulation with chitosan.},
  author={Edel A. McNeela and Inderjit Jabbal-Gill and Lisbeth Illum and Mariagrazia Pizza and Rino Rappuoli and A. Podda and David J Lewis and Kingston H. G. Mills},
  journal={Vaccine},
  year={2004},
  volume={22 8},
  pages={909-14}
}
We previously reported that intranasal immunization with a non-toxic mutant cross-reacting material (CRM)197 of diphtheria toxin, formulated with chitosan, generated protective neutralizing antibodies in mice and guinea pigs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that intranasal delivery of a powder formulation of the CRM197-based vaccine was well tolerated and significantly boosted antibody responses in adult volunteers. Here we report that intranasal booster immunization with CRM197 alone or with… CONTINUE READING

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