Intranasal apomorphine: a new treatment in Parkinson's disease.

@article{Kapoor1990IntranasalAA,
  title={Intranasal apomorphine: a new treatment in Parkinson's disease.},
  author={R. Kapoor and N. Turjanski and J. Frankel and B. Kleedorfer and A. Lees and G. Stern and M. Bovingdon and R. Webster},
  journal={Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery \& Psychiatry},
  year={1990},
  volume={53},
  pages={1015}
}
necessary to produce thermic dysregulation, whereas unilateral damage to the medulla oblongata appears to be sufficient.6 In our case, the initial downward gaze palsy indicates a bilateral involvement of the upper mesencephalon.7 This can be compared to Wernicke's encephalopathy where hypothermia may occur, and where the mesodiencephalic lesions, although more extended rostro-caudally, are bilateral.8 To our knowledge, no previous observation of hypothermia related to a mesodiencephalic lesion… Expand
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The therapeutic effect of continuous apomorphine infusion is reviewed, practical recommendations on its use are provided and the patient's quality of life is improved. Expand
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The simplicity in the technique of intranasal apomorphine administration was found to be superior by all patients and the speed and the quality of motor response and the pharmacokinetic profile showed results similar to those seen after subcutaneous injection of apomorphicine administered by insulin pen syringe. Expand
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References

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Levodopa peripheral pharmacokinetics and duration of motor response in Parkinson's disease.
TLDR
It is proposed that the duration of response is primarily determined by levodopa peripheral pharmacokinetics rather than by central pharmacodynamic factors associated with dopamine storage capacity. Expand