Intramolecular and lateral intermolecular hole transfer at the sensitized TiO2 interface.


Characterization of the redox properties of TiO2 interfaces sensitized to visible light by a series of cyclometalated ruthenium polypyridyl compounds containing both a terpyridyl ligand with three carboxylic acid/carboxylate or methyl ester groups for surface binding and a tridentate cyclometalated ligand with a conjugated triarylamine (NAr3) donor group is described. Spectroelectrochemical studies revealed non-Nernstian behavior with nonideality factors of 1.37 ± 0.08 for the Ru(III/II) couple and 1.15 ± 0.09 for the NAr3(•+/0) couple. Pulsed light excitation of the sensitized thin films resulted in rapid excited-state injection (k(inj) > 10(8) s(-1)) and in some cases hole transfer to NAr3 [TiO2(e(-))/Ru(III)-NAr3 → TiO2(e(-))/Ru(II)-NAr3(•+)]. The rate constants for charge recombination [TiO2(e(-))/Ru(III)-NAr3 → TiO2/Ru(II)-NAr3 or TiO2(e(-))/Ru(II)-NAr3(•+) → TiO2/Ru(II)-NAr3] were insensitive to the identity of the cyclometalated compound, while the open-circuit photovoltage was significantly larger for the compound with the highest quantum yield for hole transfer, behavior attributed to a larger dipole moment change (Δμ = 7.7 D). Visible-light excitation under conditions where the Ru(III) centers were oxidized resulted in injection into TiO2 [TiO2/Ru(III)-NAr3 + hν → TiO2(e(-))/Ru(III)-NAr3(•+)] followed by rapid back interfacial electron transfer to another oxidized compound that had not undergone excited-state injection [TiO2(e(-))/Ru(III)-NAr3 → TiO2/Ru(II)-NAr3]. The net effect was the photogeneration of equal numbers of fully reduced and fully oxidized compounds. Lateral intermolecular hole hopping (TiO2/Ru(II)-NAr3 + TiO2/Ru(III)-NAr3(•+) → 2TiO2/Ru(III)-NAr3) was observed spectroscopically and was modeled by Monte Carlo simulations that revealed an effective hole hopping rate of (130 ns)(-1).

DOI: 10.1021/ja410647c

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@article{Hu2014IntramolecularAL, title={Intramolecular and lateral intermolecular hole transfer at the sensitized TiO2 interface.}, author={Ke Hu and Kiyoshi C. D. Robson and Evan E Beauvilliers and Eduardo Schott and Ximena Zarate and Ramiro Arratia-P{\'e}rez and Curtis P Berlinguette and Gerald J Meyer}, journal={Journal of the American Chemical Society}, year={2014}, volume={136 3}, pages={1034-46} }