Intractable anemia among hemodialysis patients: a sign of suboptimal management or a marker of disease?

Abstract

BACKGROUND Most incident hemodialysis (HD) patients who initiate dialysis therapy with anemia usually can achieve a hemoglobin (Hb) level of 11 g/dL or greater (> or =110 g/L) within a few months of the initiation of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) therapy. However, patients unable to achieve this level may be at greater risk for adverse outcomes… (More)

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