Three human small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), E1, E2 and E3, were reported earlier that have unique sequences, interact directly with unique segments of pre-rRNA in vivo and are encoded in introns of protein genes. In the present report, human and frog E1, E2 and E3 RNAs injected into the cytoplasm of frog oocytes migrated to the nucleus and specifically to the nucleolus. This indicates that the nucleolar and nuclear localization signals of these snoRNAs reside within their evolutionarily conserved segments. Homologs of these snoRNAs from several vertebrates were sequenced and this information was used to develop RNA secondary structure models. These snoRNAs have unique phylogenetically conserved sequences.