Intracellular immune responses of dipteran insects.

  title={Intracellular immune responses of dipteran insects.},
  author={Stefanie Steinert and Elena A Levashina},
  journal={Immunological reviews},
  volume={240 1},
Vector-borne diseases, transmitted by bloodsucking arthropods, pose worldwide socio-medical and economical problems. Some of the major human infectious diseases, such as malaria, Dengue fever, and yellow fever, are transmitted by mosquitoes. While the majority of pathogens enjoy extracellular life styles in insects, viruses and some endosymbionts are strictly intracellular. Here, we summarize our knowledge on defense reactions against intracellular microorganisms in dipteran insects and discuss… CONTINUE READING
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