Intracellular ice formation in insects: unresolved after 50 years?

  title={Intracellular ice formation in insects: unresolved after 50 years?},
  author={Brent J. Sinclair and David Renault},
  journal={Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular \& integrative physiology},
  volume={155 1},
  • B. SinclairD. Renault
  • Published 2010
  • Biology
  • Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology

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The ability to survive intracellular freezing in nematodes is related to the pattern and distribution of ice formed

Nematodes that survive intracellular freezing have small, uniform ice spaces, whereas the ice spaces of poor survivors vary more, with large spaces that may cause cellular damage.

Insect cell plasma membranes do, while soluble enzymes do not, need stabilization by accumulated cryoprotectant molecules during freezing stress

It is suggested that insect soluble enzymes are not primary targets of freezing injury in freeze-sensitive insects exposed to lethal freezing stress as they are sufficiently protected from loss of activity by complex composition of native biological solutions.

Molecular biology of freezing tolerance.

More recent advances in knowledge of the genes and proteins that support freeze tolerance and the metabolic regulatory mechanisms involved are providing a much more complete picture of life in the frozen state.

Stabilization of insect cell membranes and soluble enzymes by accumulated cryoprotectants during freezing stress.

Test the coupled hypotheses that are perpetuated in the literature: that irreversible denaturation of proteins and loss of biological membrane integrity are two ultimate molecular mechanisms of freezing injury in freeze-sensitive insects and that seasonally accumulated small cryoprotective molecules (CPs) stabilize proteins and membranes against injury in Freeze-tolerant insects.

Mechanisms underlying insect freeze tolerance

Although freeze tolerance is a complex cold‐tolerance strategy that has evolved multiple times, it is suggested that a process‐focused approach will facilitate hypothesis‐driven research to understand better how insects survive internal ice formation.

Molecular Physiology of Freeze Tolerance in Vertebrates.

Recent advances in the understanding of amphibian and reptile freeze tolerance with a focus on cell preservation strategies, membrane transporters for water and cryoprotectants, energy metabolism, gene/protein adaptations, and the regulatory control of freeze-responsive hypometabolism at multiple levels are providing a much more complete picture of life in the frozen state.

Insect fat body cell morphology and response to cold stress is modulated by acclimation

The observations indicate that lipid coalescence and damage to α-tubulin are non-lethal forms of freeze injury, and suggest that repair or removal of actin proteins is a potential mechanism of acquired freeze tolerance.

Thermal analysis of ice and glass transitions in insects that do and do not survive freezing

Differential scanning calorimetry analysis of ice fraction dynamics in two drosophilid flies indicates a tight association between proline-induced vitrification and survival of cryopreservation in Chymomyza costata larvae.

The ability of the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi to survive intracellular freezing is dependent upon nutritional status

It is confirmed that P. davidi can survive intracellular freezing and shown that this ability is dependent upon them being well fed, and the effect of culture conditions on the nutrient status of the nematodes should be an important factor in the design of experiments.



Survival of intracellular freezing by the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi

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Determining the mechanisms by which this nematode survives intracellular freezing could have important applications in the cryopreservation of a variety of biological materials.

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A new view of the mechanism of slow freezing injury ought to facilitate the development of procedures for the preservation of complex assemblages of cells of biological, medical, and agricultural significance.

Freeze-induced shrinkage of individual cells and cell-to-cell propagation of intracellular ice in cell chains from salivary glands

Results suggest that the mechanism of IIF spread, and consequently the degree of cryodamage in tissue, can be influenced by the presence of intercellular channels (gap junctions).

Intracellular freezing, viability, and composition of fat body cells from freeze-intolerant larvae of Sarcophaga crassipalpis.

The capacity of fat body cells from nondiapause-destined and diapause -destined larvae of the freeze-intolerant flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis to survive intracellular freezing was investigated.

Physiology of cold tolerance in insects.

Future research should be focused on the possible role of other factors in cold hardening such as bound water, dehydration, low-molecular-weight solutes other than polyols, and the biochemical mechanisms forming the basis of the seasonal changes in the cold hardiness of insects.

Climatic variability and the evolution of insect freeze tolerance

The climates of the two hemispheres have led to the parallel evolution of freeze tolerance for very different reasons, and this hemispheric difference is symptomatic of many wide‐scale disparities in Northern and Southern ecological processes.

Aquaporins play a role in desiccation and freeze tolerance in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis

This study supports the hypothesis that naturally occurring aquaporins in E. solidaginis are regulated during desiccation and promote cell survival during freezing and freezes fat body, midgut and salivary gland tissues in the presence and absence of mercuric chloride.

Organic solutes in freezing tolerance.

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