Intracapsular algae provide fixed carbon to developing embryos of the salamander Ambystoma maculatum

  title={Intracapsular algae provide fixed carbon to developing embryos of the salamander Ambystoma maculatum},
  author={Erin R. Graham and Scott A. Fay and Adam Davey and Robert W Sanders},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  pages={452 - 459}
SUMMARY Each spring, North American spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) females each lay hundreds of eggs in shallow pools of water. Eggs are surrounded by jelly layers and are deposited as large gelatinous masses. Following deposition, masses are penetrated by a mutualistic green alga, Oophila amblystomatis, which enters individual egg capsules, proliferates and aggregates near the salamander embryo, providing oxygen that enhances development. We examined the effects of population density… 

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Egg mass polymorphism in Ambystoma maculatum is not associated with larval performance or survival, or with cell density of the algal symbiont Oophila amblystomatis

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The results confirm earlier studies suggesting a role of heterotrophic carbon fixation during vertebrate embryonic development and show that the considerable capacity of developing A. maculatum embryos for inorganic carbon fixation precludes the ability to distinguish any minor role of photosynthetically transferred carbon from algal symbionts to host salamanders using bicarbonate introduced to the egg system as a marker.

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Dynamics of the growth, life history transformation and photosynthetic capacity of Oophila amblystomatis (Chlorophyceae), a green algal symbiont associated with embryos of the northeastern yellow spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia)

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Earlier research on this symbiosis between Ambystoma maculatum embryos and green algae is summarized and gaps in understanding are emphasized and various research avenues are suggested to address these unanswered questions.

Intermittent hypoxia in eggs of Ambystoma maculatum: embryonic development and egg capsule conductance

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Ammonia: basis for algal symbiosis in salamander egg masses.


  • PinderFriet
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Control of Translocation in Some Associations between Invertebrates and Algae a

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  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • 1987
The work I wish to discuss is all concerned with the control of translocation of products of photosynthesis from the algae to the animals.

Ontogenetic influences on carbon flux in Aulactinia stelloides polyps (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and their endosymbiotic algae

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