Cementless implants are mechanically stabilized during surgery by a press-fitting procedure. Good initial stability is crucial to avoid stem loosening and bone cracking, therefore, the surgeon must achieve optimal press-fitting. A possible approach to solve this problem and assist the surgeon in achieving the optimal compromise, involves the use of vibration analysis. The present study aimed to design and test a prototype device able to evaluate the primary mechanical stability of a cementless prosthesis, based on vibration analysis. In particular, the goal was to discriminate between stable and quasi-stable implants; thus the stem-bone system was assumed to be linear in both cases. For that reason, it was decided to study the frequency responses of the system, instead of the harmonic distortion. The prototype developed consists of a piezoelectric exciter connected to the stem and an accelerometer attached to the femur. Preliminary tests were performed on four composite femurs implanted with a conventional stem. The results showed that the input signal was repeatable and the output could be recorded accurately. The most sensitive parameter to stability was the shift in resonance frequency of the stem-bone system, which was highly correlated with residual micromotion on all four specimens.