Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny

  title={Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny},
  author={Frederik Leliaert and Heroen Verbruggen and Frederick W. Zechman},
Recent data have provided evidence for an unrecognised ancient lineage of green plants that persists in marine deep‐water environments. The green plants are a major group of photosynthetic eukaryotes that have played a prominent role in the global ecosystem for millions of years. A schism early in their evolution gave rise to two major lineages, one of which diversified in the world's oceans and gave rise to a large diversity of marine and freshwater green algae (Chlorophyta) while the other… 

Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution of the Green Algae

Current understanding of organelle genome evolution in the green algae is summarized, genomic insights into the ecology of oceanic picoplanktonic prasinophytes, molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of complexity in volvocine green algae, and the Evolution of genetic codes and the translational apparatus in green seaweeds are summarized.

Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses reveal the deepest-branching lineage of the Chlorophyta, Palmophyllophyceae class. nov.

The small, compact and intronless chloroplast genome of V. peltata shows striking similarities in gene content and organization with the cpDNAs of Prasinococcales and the streptophyte Mesostigma viride, indicating that cpDNA architecture has been extremely well conserved in these deep-branching lineages of green plants.

Chloroplast Phylogenomic Inference of Green Algae Relationships

The proposed phylogenetic tree of Chlorophyta will offer new insights to investigate ancient green algae evolution, and the analytical framework will provide a useful approach for evaluating and mitigating the potential errors of phylogenomic inferences.

Transitions between marine and freshwater environments provide new clues about the origins of multicellular plants and algae

An inventory of bidirectional freshwater and marine transitions in multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes concludes that, in addition to physiological studies of euryhaline species, comparative studies of closely related species fully adapted to one or the other environment are necessary to better understand the adaptive processes.

From algae to angiosperms–inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes

The limits and challenges of inferring a comprehensive green plant phylogeny from available complete or nearly complete plastid genome sequence data are explored and the importance of exploring the effects of different partitioning and character coding strategies is emphasized.

Comparative analyses of 3654 chloroplast genomes unraveled new insights into the evolutionary mechanism of green plants

The first of its kind large scale comparative analyses of the chloroplast coding gene constitution for 3654 green plants are presented and some important genes likely showed co-occurrence and formed gene cluster and gene blocks in Streptophyta.

Evidence-based green algal genomics reveals marine diversity and ancestral characteristics of land plants

These studies provide robust genomic resources for emerging model algae, advancing knowledge of marine phytoplankton and plant evolution, and indicate that peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis enzymes have been lost in multiple independent events in select prasinophytes and plants.

Diversity and Evolution of Algae: Primary Endosymbiosis

Ancient origin of the biosynthesis of lignin precursors

Genes associated with p-coumaryl alcohol biosynthesis are likely to have evolved long before the transition of photosynthetic eukaryotes to land, and it is suggested that it participates in the biological defense of some unicellular and multicellular algae.

Basal Lineages of Green Algae – Their Diversity and Phylogeny

  • S. Sym
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • 2015
This chapter considers the characteristics of, and phylogenetic relationships between, these new classes and other related groups, as well as their representatives and, briefly, their ecology.




Analysis of the nuclear ribosomal DNA allies the Palmophyllales with the prasinophyte genera Prasinococcus and Prasinoderma (Prasinococcales), while the plastid gene phylogeny placed PalmophyLLum and Verdigellas as sister clade to all other Chlorophyta.

The fossil recordand evolution of freshwater plants : a review

The fossil record of freshwater plants shows the diversification of additional angiosperm and aquatic fern lineages, which resulted in the first differentiation of aquatic plant biogeoprovinces and the development of freshwater diatoms and chrysophytes.

A molecular timeline for the origin of photosynthetic eukaryotes.

An ancient (late Paleoproterozoic) origin of photosynthetic eukaryotes with the primary endosymbiosis that gave rise to the first alga having occurred after the split of the Plantae from the opisthokonts sometime before 1,558 MYA is supported.

Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae hold the key?

A large data set of nuclear-encoded genes from 40 green plant taxa including 21 embryophytes and six streptophyte algae is used to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of streptophical algal lineages, and phylogenetic analyses indicate that either the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of the Zyghmatales and the Coleochaetales are the sister group to embryophyts.

Green algae and the origin of land plants.

A recent multigene analysis corroborates a close relationship between Mesostigma (formerly in the Prasinophyceae) and the charophyte algae, although sequence data of the Mesost Sigma mitochondrial genome analysis places the genus as sister toCharales, and these studies also support Charales as Sister to land plants.

The Green Algal Ancestry of Land Plants as Revealed by the Chloroplast Genome

Phylogenies inferred from multiple chloroplast genes and proteins support the hypothesis that the Charales are sister to a clade composed of the Coleochaetales, the Zygnematales, and land plants, thus implying a more complex evolutionary history for charophycean green algae.

The Origin and Early Evolution of Green Plants

The Closest Living Relatives of Land Plants

A four-gene phylogenetic analysis supports the hypothesis that the land plants are placed phylogenetically within the Charophyta, identifies the Charales (stoneworts) as the closest living relatives of plants, and shows the Coleochaetales as sister to this Charales/land plant assemblage.

Evolutionary Trajectories and Biogeochemical Impacts of Marine Eukaryotic Phytoplankton

The evolutionary succession of marine photoautotrophs began with the origin of photosynthesis in the Archean Eon, and three groups of chlorophyll c–containing eukaryotes, the dinoflagellates, coccolithophorids, and diatoms began evolutionary trajectories that have culminated in ecological dominance in the con...