The interventional radiologist who performs mammography does far more than read films; he examines every patient, punctures cysts, and localizes other breast lesions for precise excisional biopsy. With specimen radiography, he can confirm that suspicious lesions are completely removed by the surgeon and that the tissue in question is selected by the pathologist for examination. Pneumocystography can save the patient the unnecessary, disfiguring surgical removal of benign cysts. Those patients requiring biopsy may be scheduled for the procedure at once, and close cooperation with the surgeon greatly reduces the time the patient must wait to find out whether or not she has breast cancer. Thus, the interventional radiologist can improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis of breast lesions, establish a definitive diagnosis and expedite the therapeutic management of benign cysts, and save the patient much of the anxiety commonly experienced in waiting for diagnostic results. The end result is better care at a lower cost to the patient and to society.