Global eradication of poliomyelitis has reached critical stage. Sabin Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (OPV) has been successful in three major regions of the world. In India eradication of poliomyelitis from states of Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar has been difficult due to high population and low-socioeconomic standards of living. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and intensive OPV rounds continues with the World Health Organization (WHO) operational strategies. Yet apparent lack of progress in reducing the number of wild cases has resulted in occasional impatience and frustration, even leading to questions about ultimate feasibility of global eradication using OPV. Lucknow in UP is in geographical area endemic for poliomyelitis and is surrounded by high-risk areas yet maintains a polio-free status since 2002. Environmental surveillance study was conducted (2004-2006) to authenticate the decline in the wild poliovirus (PV) cases in Lucknow. Sewage sample analyses were compared with stools of AFP patients and healthy children from same geographical area. Study reveals useful information on OPV circulation and proves important epidemiological tool to trust WHO's OPV immunization program. Genetic sequencing had detected silent wild PV-1 circulation of RCP1PGI (EU049849), RCP2PGI (EU049850), RCP3PGI (EU049851), and RCP4PGI (EU049852) in sewage waters. Properties of isolates from sewage reflected those of viruses excreted from human. This study provides valuable information and encouragement to AFP surveillance to maintain high levels of OPV immunization campaigns in the most difficult endemic region of India to interrupt the wild PV transmission.