Interpretation of skeletal variations for human risk assessment: delayed ossification and wavy ribs.

@article{Carney2007InterpretationOS,
  title={Interpretation of skeletal variations for human risk assessment: delayed ossification and wavy ribs.},
  author={Edward W. Carney and Carole A. Kimmel},
  journal={Birth defects research. Part B, Developmental and reproductive toxicology},
  year={2007},
  volume={80 6},
  pages={473-96}
}
Delayed (or incomplete) ossification of developing fetal bones and wavy ribs are some of the most common skeletal variations encountered in regulatory guideline developmental toxicity studies. Although they tend to be regarded as minor effects, they can be quite sensitive and consequently may influence the study lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs), and thus, impact classification, labeling, and risk assessment. In this study, we review the underlying mechanisms of these skeletal… CONTINUE READING

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