Interpretation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change

  title={Interpretation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change},
  author={David W. J. Thompson and Susan Solomon},
  pages={895 - 899}
Climate variability in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere (SH) is dominated by the SH annular mode, a large-scale pattern of variability characterized by fluctuations in the strength of the circumpolar vortex. We present evidence that recent trends in the SH tropospheric circulation can be interpreted as a bias toward the high-index polarity of this pattern, with stronger westerly flow encircling the polar cap. It is argued that the largest and most significant tropospheric trends can be… 

The Southern Annular Mode: Variability, trends, and climate impacts across the Southern Hemisphere

The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is the leading mode of extratropical Southern Hemisphere climate variability, associated with changes in the strength and position of the polar jet around Antarctica.

Stratosphere–Troposphere Coupling in the Southern Hemisphere

Abstract This study examines the temporal evolution of the tropospheric circulation following large-amplitude variations in the strength of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratospheric polar vortex in

Antarctic ozone depletion causes an intensification of the Southern Ocean super‐gyre circulation

  • W. Cai
  • Environmental Science
  • 2006
Recent climate trends over the Southern Hemisphere (SH) summer feature a strengthening of the circumpolar westerly and a weakening of the midlatitude westerly extending from the stratosphere to

An atmospheric origin of the multi-decadal bipolar seesaw

The results indicate that the Southern Ocean surface cooling associated with the seesaw pattern is attributable to the strengthening (weakening) of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies, which can be traced to Northern Hemisphere and tropical tropospheric warming (cooling).

Connection between the decadal variability in the Southern Ocean circulation and the Southern Annular Mode

Previous studies demonstrated the remarkable upward trend of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and Southern Ocean wind stress in association with anthropogenic forcing. An oceanic reanalysis data set

Interannual Variability in the Southern Hemisphere Circulation Organized by Stratospheric Final Warming Events

Abstract A composite observational analysis is presented demonstrating that austral stratospheric final warming (SFW) events provide a substantial organizing influence upon the large-scale

Decadal Variations in the Winter Beaufort High and the Stratospheric Polar Vortex

We show that a weakened Beaufort High in late winter is becoming more common since the late 1980s, and this weakening is related to decadal changes in Northern Hemisphere ozone depletion. During this

Circumpolar response of Southern Ocean eddy activity to a change in the Southern Annular Mode

Analysis of satellite altimeter data reveals anomalously high Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) during the period 2000–2002. Around 2–3 years earlier (1998), the

Decadal-Scale Temperature Trends in the Southern Hemisphere Ocean

Long-term trends in the heat content of the Southern Hemisphere ocean are evaluated by comparing temperature profiles collected during the 1990s with profiles collected starting in the 1930s. Data



Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation Response to Global Warming

Abstract The response of the Southern Hemisphere (SH), extratropical, atmospheric general circulation to transient, anthropogenic, greenhouse warming is investigated in a coupled climate model. The

The effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on the phase of the Antarctic Oscillation

The effect of stratospheric ozone loss on Southern Hemispheric extratropical circulation is explored using an atmosphere‐only model. The main tropospheric response is a sudden shift in the leading

Decadal Trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional Temperatures and Precipitation

An evaluation of the atmospheric moisture budget reveals coherent large-scale changes since 1980 that are linked to recent dry conditions over southern Europe and the Mediterranean, whereas northern Europe and parts of Scandinavia have generally experienced wetter than normal conditions.

Annular Modes in the Extratropical Circulation. Part II: Trends

The authors exploit the remarkable similarity between recent climate trends and the structure of the ‘‘annular modes’’ in the month-to-month variability (as described in a companion paper) to

Wave-Driven Zonal Flow Vacillation in the Southern Hemisphere

The variability of the zonal mean flow in the Southern Hemisphere during the period 1985‐94 is studied using European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts analyses. The dominant mode of variability has

Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing

The temperature of air at the Earth's surface has risen during the past century, but the fraction of the warming that can be attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases remains controversial. The

Cooling of the Arctic and Antarctic Polar Stratospheres due to Ozone Depletion

Abstract Long time records of stratospheric temperatures indicate that substantial cooling has occurred during spring over polar regions of both hemispheres. These cooling patterns are coincident

The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields

The leading empirical orthogonal function of the wintertime sea‐level pressure field is more strongly coupled to surface air temperature fluctuations over the Eurasian continent than the North

Tropical Origins for Recent North Atlantic Climate Change

Evidence is presented that North Atlantic climate change since 1950 is linked to a progressive warming of tropical sea surface temperatures, especially over the Indian and Pacific Oceans, which has forced a commensurate trend toward one extreme phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the past half-century.

Downward Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the Stratosphere to the Troposphere

Geopotential anomalies ranging from the Earth's surface to the middle stratosphere in the northern hemisphere are dominated by a mode of variability known as the Arctic Oscillation (AO). The AO is