Interplay between spontaneous and induced brain activity during human non-rapid eye movement sleep

@article{DangVu2011InterplayBS,
  title={Interplay between spontaneous and induced brain activity during human non-rapid eye movement sleep},
  author={Thien Thanh Dang-Vu and Maxime Bonjean and Manuel Schabus and M{\'e}lanie Boly and Annabelle Darsaud and Martin Desseilles and Christian Degueldre and Evelyne Balteau and Christophe Phillips and Andr{\'e} Luxen and Terrence J. Sejnowski and Pierre Maquet},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  year={2011},
  volume={108},
  pages={15438 - 15443}
}
Humans are less responsive to the surrounding environment during sleep. However, the extent to which the human brain responds to external stimuli during sleep is uncertain. We used simultaneous EEG and functional MRI to characterize brain responses to tones during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Sounds during wakefulness elicited responses in the thalamus and primary auditory cortex. These responses persisted in NREM sleep, except throughout spindles, during which they… 

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