As both reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and microRNA expression signature have been associated with tumor development, progression, metastasis, and therapeutic response, it is important to understand the crosstalk between ROS and microRNAs. Indeed, growing evidence suggests a reciprocal connection between ROS signaling and microRNA pathway, resulting in diverse biological effects in cancer cells. In this mini review, we discussed the ROS-responsive microRNAs that have implications in cancer and the possible mechanisms in which ROS regulate microRNAs. We also highlighted the microRNAs which are able to modify cellular ROS homeostasis during tumorigenesis, their biological targets and subsequent functions. As the use of antioxidants is limited due to the diverse or even opposing roles of ROS signaling in cancer, the discovery of ROS-responsive microRNAs provides a potential new strategy to specifically overcome ROS-mediated tumor progression or benefit from ROS-induced apoptosis.