Interordinal relationships of birds and other reptiles based on whole mitochondrial genomes.

  title={Interordinal relationships of birds and other reptiles based on whole mitochondrial genomes.},
  author={David P. Mindell and Michael D. Sorenson and Derek E. Dimcheff and Masami Hasegawa and J C Ast and T Yuri},
  journal={Systematic biology},
  volume={48 1},
Several different groups of birds have been proposed as being the oldest or earliest diverging extant lineage within the avian phylogenetic tree, particularly ratites (Struthioniformes), waterfowl (Anseriformes), and shorebirds (Charadriiformes). Difficulty in resolving this issue stems from several factors, including the relatively rapid radiation of primary (ordinal) bird lineages and the lack of characters from an extant outgroup for birds that is closely related to them by measure of time… 

New candidate species most closely related to penguins.

Congruent Avian Phylogenies Inferred from Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Sequences

The data sets support a traditional avian taxonomy, with paleognaths (ratites and tinamous) occupying a basal position and with songbirds more derived and forming a monophyletic group, and it is shown that turtles may be a better outgroup for birds than crocodilians because of their slower rate of sequence evolution.

Examining Basal avian divergences with mitochondrial sequences: model complexity, taxon sampling, and sequence length.

The conclusions of several recent studies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences from birds have suggested that the passeriforms are one of the most ancient groups of extant birds and that the paleognaths are derived.

Mitochondrial evidence on the phylogenetic position of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the caecilian Typhlonectes natans (Gymnophiona, Amphibia) was determined and was used to assess the phylogenetic position of caecilians and to gain insights into the origin of living amphibians.

Complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequences show that modern birds are not descended from transitional shorebirds

The mean estimate for the origin of modern birds at about 123 million years ago (Myr ago) is quite close to recent estimates using both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, and supports theories of continental break–up as a driving force in avian diversification.

Resolving the root of the avian mitogenomic tree by breaking up long branches.

Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria)

Next-generation sequencing is used to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish, and provide a phylogenetic framework and timescale with which to interpret the evolution of the peculiar morphological, developmental, and molecular features of turtles within the amniotes.

Complete mitochondrial DNA geonome sequences of extinct birds: ratite phylogenetics and the vicariance biogeography hypothesis

  • O. HaddrathA. Baker
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2001
Most of the major ratite lineages fit the vicariance biogeography hypothesis, the exceptions being the ostrich and the kiwi, which require dispersal to explain their present distribution.



Complete mitochondrial genome suggests diapsid affinities of turtles.

  • R. ZardoyaA. Meyer
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
The results challenge the classic view of turtles as the only survivors of primary anapsid reptiles and imply that turtles might have secondarily lost their skull fenestration.

Conflict Among Individual Mitochondrial Proteins in Resolving the Phylogeny of Eutherian Orders

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Amphioxus mitochondrial DNA, chordate phylogeny, and the limits of inference based on comparisons of sequences.

Analyses of both the nucleotide and amino acid sequences derived from all 13 mitochondrial protein-encoding genes (12,234 bp) of 19 metazoan species, including that of the lancelet Branchiostoma

The complete mitochondrial genome of Alligator mississippiensis and the separation between recent archosauria (birds and crocodiles).

The complete mitochondrial genome of the alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, was sequenced and maximum-likelihood branch length data of amino acid sequences suggest that the divergence between the avian and crocodilian lineages took place at approximately equal to 254 MYA.


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Phylogenetic position of cetaceans relative to artiodactyls: reanalysis of mitochondrial and nuclear sequences.

Although the Ruminantia/Suiformes grouping is indeed least likely from Graur and Higgins' data set of mitochondrial DNA, this traditional tree cannot be rejected with statistical significance under the new analysis, and more data are needed to settle the issue.

The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the shark Mustelus manazo: evaluating rooting contradictions to living bony vertebrates.

The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence from the shark, Mustelus manazo, is determined, which is used as an alternative and more proximal outgroup than the lampreys, and lungfish appears to be the closest living relative of tetrapods.

Assessing the Cretaceous superordinal divergence times within birds and placental mammals by using whole mitochondrial protein sequences and an extended statistical framework.

Using the set of all vertebrate mtDNA protein sequences published as of May 1998, plus unpublished examples for elephant and birds, we examined divergence times in Placentalia and Aves. Using a

The mtDNA sequence of the ostrich and the divergence between paleognathous and neognathous birds.

Molecular dating of the divergence between the ostrich and the chicken indicates that these two avian lineages separated 80-90 MYA, and Phylogenetic analysis of complete cytochrome b genes of six avian orders showed that Passeriformes represent the earliest divergence among recent birds, contradicting the commonly accepted notion of a basal position of the Palaeognathae among recent Birds.