Internet paradox. A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being?

  title={Internet paradox. A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being?},
  author={Robert E. Kraut and Michael Patterson and Vicki Lundmark and Sara B. Kiesler and Tridas Mukopadhyay and William L. Scherlis},
  journal={The American psychologist},
  volume={53 9},
The Internet could change the lives of average citizens as much as did the telephone in the early part of the 20th century and television in the 1950s and 1960s. Researchers and social critics are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in community life and social relationships. This research examined the social and psychological impact of the Internet on 169 people in 73 households during their first 1 to 2 years on-line. We used longitudinal data to examine the… 

Figures from this paper


Earlier HomeNet publications reported small but reliable negative effects of using the Internet on measures of social involvement and psychological well-being among new Internet users in a sample of

The Functions of Internet Use and Their Social and Psychological Consequences

It is hypothesized that the social and psychological effects of Internet use depend primarily on the user's reasons and goals for using the technology, and that Internet use motivated principally by GIA appears to have a favorable effect on psychological well-being by first increasing social integration.

The Internet and Social Interaction: A Meta-analysis and Critique of Studies, 1995-2003

A meta-analysis of 16 surveys that examine how Internet use can affect social interaction shows that people’s Internet use is not associated with their social interaction with family members, and that using the Internet augments traditional communication and adds to people”s social ties.

Does the Internet make us lonely

The Internet and its potential effects on society receive much attention in public discussions. Many discussants expect that the World Wide Web will enhance global trade of products and services and

In Defense of the Internet: The Relationship between Internet Communication and Depression, Loneliness, Self-Esteem, and Perceived Social Support

Internet use was found to decrease loneliness and depression significantly, while perceived social support and self-esteem increased significantly.

The Internet and Social Participation: Contrasting Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses

Longitudinal analyses provide stronger evidence of the causal effects of using the Internet than do the cross-sectional ones, and suggest that the links between communication media are asymmetric: visits drive more email communication and phone calls drive more visits, but email drives neither phone calls nor visits.


We examine how people's different uses of the Internet predict their later scores on a standard measure of depression, and how their existing social resources moderate these effects. In a

Causes and Consequences of Social Interaction on the Internet: A Conceptual Framework

Increasingly, people are connecting to the Internet from their homes in order to interact with others. This article discusses research on Internet social interaction in terms of the following

Problematic Internet Use, Social Needs, and Social Support Among Youth

The Internet is essential for the teenagers and young adults who are spending hours online every day. In an effort to better understand the role of the Internet in their lives, we hypothesized that



Social support : theory, research and applications

I Theoretical and Methodological Issues.- 1 Conceptual and Theoretical Dilemmas Facing Social Support.- 2 Social Support: Theoretical Advances, Recent Findings and Pressing Issues.- 3 Social Support

Measuring the Functional Components of Social Support

In the last several years, we have been interested in the role social supports play in protecting people from the pathogenic effects of stress. By social supports, we scan the resources that are

Communication and information: alternative uses of the Internet in households

The Internet has been characterized as a superhighway to information and as a high-tech extension of the home telephone. How are people really using the Internet? The history of previous technologies

Effects of Television Viewing on Family Interactions: An Observational Study.

Most research on the effects of television viewing has addressed itself to the problem of assessing the relation of television to aggressive behavior in children and adolescents but has failed to

Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis.

There is evidence consistent with both main effect and main effect models for social support, but each represents a different process through which social support may affect well-being.

Interpersonal Effects in Computer-Mediated Interaction

This study examined the effects of time restriction on social interaction in computer-mediated communication through a meta-analysis of applicable research. Time was defined as whether subjects were

Television and the American family

Contents: Preface. Part I: Introduction and Overview. M. Andreasen, Evolution in the Family's Use of Television: An Overview. Part II: Uses of Television by the American Family. J.A. Kotler, J.C.

Literacy in the television age : the myth of the TV effect

Television represents a potent social influence for today's children. Whether it is a positive or negative force, however, continues to be hotly debated. This is the central issue of this second

The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: concurrent and discriminant validity evidence.

Two studies provide methodological refinement in the measurement of loneliness, demonstrating that although loneliness is correlated with measures of negative affect, social risk taking, and affiliative tendencies, it is nonetheless a distinct psychological experience.

Loneliness and Media Gratifications

Loneliness might be ameliorated by the gratifications offered by the media. However, evidence in support of this assumption is mixed. Relying on an attributional view of loneliness, this study tested