International Standards for Neurological and Functional Classification of Spinal Cord Injury

@article{Maynard1997InternationalSF,
  title={International Standards for Neurological and Functional Classification of Spinal Cord Injury},
  author={Frederick M. Maynard and Michael B. Bracken and G. H. Creasey and John Ditunno and William H. Donovan and Thomas B. Ducker and Susan Lipton Garber and Ralph J. Marino and Samuel L. Stover and Charles Tator and Robert L. Waters and Jack E. Wilberger and Wise Young},
  journal={Spinal Cord},
  year={1997},
  volume={35},
  pages={266-274}
}
International Standards for Neurological and Functional Classification of Spinal Cord Injury 

Figures from this paper

A simple methodology to improve AIS-based assessment of recovery after acute spinal cord injury
TLDR
A simple methodology to improve AIS-based assessment of recovery after acute spinal cord injury and its application to clinical practice is presented.
The clinical significance of spinal cord injuries in patients older than 60 years of age
TLDR
To study the causes and the rehabilitation outcome of traumatic spinal cord injury in patients older than 60 years at the time of injury, a large number of patients diagnosed with SCI have undergone surgery.
Sensory perception in complete spinal cord injury
TLDR
Feelings evoked by painful or repetitive stimulation below injury level in patients with a clinically complete spinal cord injury are described.
Updates for the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury.
Spinal cord injury: Missed pediatric spinal injuries—neurological consequences?
  • V. Dietz
  • Medicine
    Nature Reviews Neurology
  • 2012
TLDR
It is shown that noncontiguous spinal injuries are often missed on primary radiographic examination, highlighting the need for combined radiographic, clinical and neurophysiological examinations to detect these lesions.
Psychological impact of sports activity in spinal cord injury patients
TLDR
Whether sports activity is associated with better psychological profiles in patients with spinal cord injury and the effect of demographic factors on psychological benefits is investigated.
Clinical assessment after acute cervical spinal cord injury.
TLDR
The Functional Independence Measure is recommended as the functional outcome assessment tool for clinicians involved in the assessment and care of patients with acute spinal cord injuries.
Timing of Surgery for Neurologically Compromised Traumatic Cervical Spine Injuries.
TLDR
The existing evidence and the effect of timing on clinical, functional, and neurologic outcomes are reviewed and the benefit of early decompression is discussed.
Alterations in brain connectivity after spinal cord injury using functional MRI
TLDR
Research is continuing into the impact of spinal cord injury on brain connectivity and the role that these injuries play in human decision-making.
Injuries of the Middle and Lower Cervical Spine
TLDR
The unique anatomy of the cervical column exposes it to a higher risk of traumatic injuries, so it is important to select patients suitable for vaginal or laparoscopic mesh placement for cervical cancer research.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 15 REFERENCES
The International Standards Booklet for Neurological and Functional Classification of Spinal Cord Injury
TLDR
The International Standards Booklet for Neurological and Functional Classification of Spinal Cord Injury is a guide to the classification of spinal cord injuries and injuries to the nervous system.
Motor classification of spinal cord injuries with mobility, morbidity and recovery indices.
TLDR
A standardized motor examination is introduced that will aid in the direct comparison of future results for any spinal cord treatment regimes and tables of MIi and recovery rates have been presented to aid the correct classification of new patients and the prediction of their present chances of motor recovery.
Motor classification of spinal cord injuries with mobility, morbidity and recovery indices
TLDR
A standardized motor examination is introduced that will aid in the direct comparison of future results for any spinal cord treatment regimes and tables of MIi and recovery rates have been presented to aid the correct classification of new patients and the prediction of their present chances of motor recovery.
The value of postural reduction in the initial management of closed injuries of the spine with paraplegia and tetraplegia
TLDR
The incidence of various types of fracture and fracture-dislocation and the degree of reduction achieved by postural reduction is analysed in relation to the initial and late neurological lesions.
Definition of complete spinal cord injury
TLDR
Prospective serial neurological examinations were performed on 445 consecutive traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients admitted for rehabilitation on an average of 22.8±15.6 days after injury, in order to compare the definitions in terms of consistency and prognostic ability.
Functional assessment measures in CNS trauma.
TLDR
The functional independence measure (FIM), which was developed in the past 6-7 years, will be added to the standards and shows good reliability for SCI as an overall assessment and some of the specific categories of self-care and mobility.
International inquiry on neurological terminology and prognosis in paraplegia and tetraplegia
TLDR
Of the two different methods of defining the neurological level method (a) giving the number of the most distal uninvolved segment of the cord is unequivocal, it should, wherever possible, be adopted, particularly in centres planned in future.
A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury. Results of the Second National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study.
TLDR
It is concluded that in patients with acute spinal-cord injury, treatment with methylprednisolone in the dose used in this study improves neurologic recovery when the medication is given in the first eight hours.
Interrater agreement of the seven level Functional Independence Measure (FIM)
  • Arch Phys Med Rehabil
  • 1991
...
1
2
...