Internal mammary lymphadenopathy: imaging of a vital lymphatic pathway in breast cancer.


The prognostic significance of metastases to the internal mammary lymph nodes in patients with breast carcinoma has long been recognized. While ipsilateral dissection of axillary nodes remains a popular staging strategy for breast cancer, surgical sampling of the upper anterior intercostal spaces, a tedious procedure, has been largely abandoned. Diagnostic… (More)


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