Internal forces sustained by the vertebral artery during spinal manipulative therapy.

  title={Internal forces sustained by the vertebral artery during spinal manipulative therapy.},
  author={Bruce P Symons and Timothy Leonard and Walter Herzog},
  journal={Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics},
  volume={25 8},
BACKGROUND Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) has been established as a clinically effective modality for the management of several musculoskeletal disorders. One major issue with the use of SMT is its safety, especially with respect to neck manipulation and the risk of stroke in the vertebrobasilar system. OBJECTIVES Our objectives were to quantify the strains and forces sustained by the vertebral artery (VA) in situ during SMT. STUDY DESIGN This was a cadaveric study. METHODS Six VAs… 

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