Intermittent Morphine Administration Induces Dependence and is a Chronic Stressor in Rats

@article{Houshyar2003IntermittentMA,
  title={Intermittent Morphine Administration Induces Dependence and is a Chronic Stressor in Rats},
  author={Hani Houshyar and Francisca Gomez and Sotara L Manalo and Aditi Bhargava and Mary F. Dallman},
  journal={Neuropsychopharmacology},
  year={2003},
  volume={28},
  pages={1960-1972}
}
Although constant treatment with morphine (implanted pellets) does not activate the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, intermittent injections of morphine may constitute a chronic stressor in rats. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of morphine in escalating doses (10–40 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline injected twice daily for 4 days on energy balance, hormones, HPA responses to novel restraint and central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA 12 h and 8 days after the last… CONTINUE READING