OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to evaluate (a) health-related quality of life (HRQL) after vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) (Mason) and (b) predictors of HRQL. SUBJECTS Eighty-two consecutive patients were assessed preoperatively and then after 6, 12 and 24 months. Patients filled out questionnaires for subjective appraisal of HRQL (physical well-being, mood, physical performance, perceived health, social support and coping/adjustment). RESULTS The greatest improvement in weight and HRQL was seen within 6 months of surgery. Twenty-four months after VBG weight reduction (P<0.05), perceived health (P<0.05), physical well-being (P<0.05), physical performance (P<0.05), mood (P<0.05), coping/adjustment (P<0.05) continued to be better than before surgery. Preoperative binge eating was the most important predictor of HRQL. CONCLUSION Two years after VBG weight loss and a significant improvement of HRQL can be found. HRQL and weight loss are not associated in terms of outcome, indicating that weight loss alone may not be enough to improve HRQL.