Endothelial STAT3 Activation Increases Vascular Leakage Through Downregulating Tight Junction Proteins: Implications for Diabetic Retinopathy.
Interleukin (IL)-6, a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is suggested to be a risk factor for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) because of its increased levels in the serum of patients with age-related macular degeneration; however, the role of IL-6 in CNV has not been defined. The present study reveals the critical contribution of IL-6 signaling and its downstream STAT3 pathway to the murine model of laser-induced CNV. CNV induction by laser treatment stimulated IL-6 expression in the retinal pigment epithelium-choroid complex, and antibody-based blockade of IL-6 receptor or genetic ablation of IL-6 led to significant suppression of CNV. CNV generation was accompanied by STAT3 activation in choroidal endothelial cells and macrophages, and IL-6 receptor blockade resulted in selectively inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Consistently, pharmacological blockade of STAT3 pathway also suppressed CNV. In addition, IL-6 receptor neutralization led to significant inhibition of the in vivo and in vitro expression of inflammation-related molecules including monocyte chemotactic protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and of macrophage infiltration into CNV. These results indicate the significant involvement of IL-6 receptor-mediated activation of STAT3 inflammatory pathway in CNV generation, suggesting the possibility of IL-6 receptor blockade as a therapeutic strategy to suppress CNV associated with age-related macular degeneration.