Interleukin-4 increases murine airway response to kinins, via up-regulation of bradykinin B1-receptors and altered signalling along mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.


BACKGROUND IL-4 is believed to play a role in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through promotion of eosinophilic inflammation and mucus hypersecretion. Whether IL-4 can induce a direct effect on airway smooth muscle remains unknown. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of IL-4 on airway smooth muscle, focusing on the contractile response to… (More)


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