Endothelial Activation Microparticles and Inflammation Status Improve with Exercise Training in African Americans
Adhesive interactions between monocytes and vascular endothelial cells increase the expression of the inflammatory genes, tissue factor (TF) and E-selectin, thus contributing to the inflammatory process. In this study, we have shown that these responses could be regulated by the immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10). IL-10 reduced TF generation in monocyte/endothelium co-cultures (64. 3 +/- 3.3% reduction, P < 0.01, n = 4) by acting directly on monocytes, whereas IL-4 inhibited TF expression in both monocytes and endothelium. Similarly, IL-10 reduced the induction of endothelial E-selectin by monocytes (100% reduction at 21 h), but had no effect on cytokine-induced E-selectin expression. IL-10 itself was not able to induce E-selectin protein or mRNA in endothelial cells. IL-10 mRNA was detected in monocytes after 6 h co-culture with endothelial cells, and was sustained for up to 30 h. Finally, IL-10 significantly reduced the adhesion of monocytes to endothelium (45% reduction), which may account in part for the inhibitory actions of IL-10. We conclude that IL-10 has an anti-inflammatory effect on monocyte/endothelium interactions, and may itself be produced as a result of such interactions.