Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha can be induced from mononuclear phagocytes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binding to the CD4 receptor.

@article{Merrill1989Interleukin1AT,
  title={Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha can be induced from mononuclear phagocytes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binding to the CD4 receptor.},
  author={Jean E. Merrill and Yoshio Koyanagi and Irvin S. Y. Chen},
  journal={Journal of virology},
  year={1989},
  volume={63 10},
  pages={4404-8}
}
Cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) are important in normal immune processes. In this study, we demonstrate that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions induce normal peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytes to produce both IL-1 and TNF within a few hours after their exposure to virus. The induction of these cytokines by HIV-1 does not require a productive infection. Blocking studies with soluble CD4 indicate that the effect is mediated… CONTINUE READING

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