Interleukin‐9 polymorphism in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection: An opposite effect in boys and girls

  title={Interleukin‐9 polymorphism in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection: An opposite effect in boys and girls},
  author={Annemieke Schuurhof and Louis Bont and Christine L. E. Siezen and Hennie M. Hodemaekers and Hans C van Houwelingen and Tjeerd G. Kimman and Barbara Hoebee and Jan L. L. Kimpen and Riny Janssen},
  journal={Pediatric Pulmonology},
The predominance of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in boys compared to girls is well known, but its mechanism is not yet understood. This is the first study focusing on gender‐specific genetic factors affecting the risk of severe RSV infection using a previously described cohort. We determined 347 single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 470 children hospitalized for RSV infection, their parents, and 1,008 random population controls. We tested if these SNPs exerted a… 
Human genetics and respiratory syncytial virus disease: current findings and future approaches.
Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can result in a wide spectrum of pulmonary manifestations, from mild upper respiratory symptoms to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Although there
Disease severity in respiratory syncytial virus infection: Role of host genetic variation
The findings clearly indicate that the response of each individual to infection is influenced by genetic diversity mainly linked to the regulation of host immune responses, which affects the balance between control of viral replication and tissue damage during RSV infection.
Risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection in preterm infants: reviewing the need for prevention
The importance of disease prevention and the evidence-based rationale for prophylaxis with palivizumab is explored, while awaiting the development of a universal vaccine.
Defining the Epidemiology and Burden of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Among Infants and Children in Western Countries
RSV infection remains a major burden on Western healthcare systems and has been associated with significant morbidity and associated risk factors, so further studies are needed to determine the true burden of disease.
Respiratory syncytial virus–Host interaction in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis and its impact on respiratory morbidity in later life
  • G. Rossi, A. Colin
  • Biology, Medicine
    Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
  • 2017
Large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between RSV infection and subsequent recurrent wheezing and asthma into childhood, thought to be predominantly related to long‐term changes in neuroimmune control of airway tone rather than to allergic sensitization.
Respiratory syncytial virus infection: why does disease severity vary among individuals?
This article reviews the available literature on the field of RSV disease severity and discusses important factors associated to susceptibility and different disease outcome and characterizing, classifying, and grading the affecting factors in high-risk patients versus those who do not fall ill by RSV.
The CD4 T cell response to respiratory syncytial virus infection
Future RSV vaccines must induce a balanced CD4 T cell response in order to facilitate viral clearance while inducing proper regulation of the immune response.
Correlation between female sex, IL28B genotype, and the clinical severity of bronchiolitis in pediatric patients
Findings suggest that innate immunity and female sex links with the outcome of the diseases induced by respiratory viruses, such as RSV, are suggested.
Proteins involved in extracellular matrix dynamics are associated with respiratory syncytial virus disease severity
Extracellular matrix proteinases play an important role in the pathogenesis of RSV bronchiolitis and MMP-3 was confirmed as a marker of disease severity in a larger cohort and M MP3 gene polymorphism rs522616 was associated with severe RSV infection.


Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is predominantly associated with innate immune genes.
SNPs in innate immune genes are important in determining susceptibility to RSV bronchiolitis and the role of innate immunity as a process was reinforced by association of the whole group of innate immune SNPs when the global test for groups of genes was applied.
Association of severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis with interleukin-4 and interleukin-4 receptor alpha polymorphisms.
The results indicate that gain-of-function variants of T helper type 2 cytokine genes may play a role in increasing the severity of RSV disease, which appears more pronounced after the first half-year of life.
Association between common Toll-like receptor 4 mutations and severe respiratory syncytial virus disease.
These findings suggest that TLR4 mutations, but not the CD14/-159 polymorphism, are associated with an increased risk of severe RSV bronchiolitis in previously healthy infants.
Influence of promoter variants of interleukin-10, interleukin-9, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha genes on respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.
Previously, we reported genetic associations between severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in infants and polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Ralpha)
Future prospects in respiratory syncytial virus genetics
Genetic association between interleukin (IL)-4, IL-4Rα and IL-10 polymorphisms and respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis differ between children younger and older than 6 months, indicating a different pathogenesis in these subsets of patients.
Sex-specific effect of IL9 polymorphisms on lung function and polysensitization
This study underlies the importance of taking into account complex mechanisms, such as heterogeneity according to sex and pleiotropy to unravel the genes involved in asthma phenotypes.
Host Transcription Profiles upon Primary Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
The processes and pathways induced shortly after RSV infection can now be used for the selection of candidate genes for human genetic studies of children with severe RSV infections, indicating that the strong transcriptional response in the lung precedes the peak of viral replication.
Sex-Dependent Differences in Plasma Cytokine Responses to Hantavirus Infection
It is reported that hantavirus-infected female patients show significantly higher plasma levels of interleukin-9, fibroblast growth factor 2, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and lower levels of IL-8 and gamma interferon-induced protein 10 than male patients.
Interleukin 9: a candidate gene for asthma.
Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is located in the linked region and was analyzed as a gene candidate and the expression of IL-9 was markedly reduced in bronchial hyporesponsive mice, and the level of expression was determined by sequences within the qualitative trait locus (QTL).