Intergroup variation in robbing and bartering by long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu Temple (Bali, Indonesia)

@article{Brotcorne2017IntergroupVI,
  title={Intergroup variation in robbing and bartering by long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu Temple (Bali, Indonesia)},
  author={Fany Brotcorne and Gwennan Giraud and No{\"e}lle Gunst and Agust{\'i}n Fuentes and I Nengah Wandia and Roseline C. Beudels‐Jamar and Pascal Poncin and Marie-Claude Huynen and Jean-Baptiste Leca},
  journal={Primates},
  year={2017},
  volume={58},
  pages={505-516}
}
Robbing and bartering (RB) is a behavioral practice anecdotally reported in free-ranging commensal macaques. It usually occurs in two steps: after taking inedible objects (e.g., glasses) from humans, the macaques appear to use them as tokens, returning them to humans in exchange for food. While extensively studied in captivity, our research is the first to investigate the object/food exchange between humans and primates in a natural setting. During a 4-month study in 2010, we used both focal… 
Cohort dominance rank and “robbing and bartering” among subadult male long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu, Bali
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Dominance rank was strongly positively correlated with robbery efficiency in Riting, but not Celagi, meaning that more dominant Riting subadult males exhibited fewer overall robbery attempts per successful robbery.
Social influence on the expression of robbing and bartering behaviours in Balinese long-tailed macaques
TLDR
The results support the cultural nature of the RB practice in the Uluwatu macaques and find that the synchronized expression of robbing and bartering could be explained by response facilitation.
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TLDR
It is argued that IGV could plausibly explain inconsistent research findings across numerous topics of inquiry (experimental/behavioural studies on chimpanzees), and it is aimed to encourage researchers to explicitly consider IGV as an explanatory variable in future studies attempting to understand the socio-cognitive and evolutionary determinants of behaviour in group-living animals.
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It is found that macaques who interacted more frequently with people spent significantly less time resting and grooming, supporting the time constraints hypothesis, and arguing that these time constraints are likely caused by the unpredictability of human behaviour.
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