Intergroup contact theory.

  title={Intergroup contact theory.},
  author={Thomas F. Pettigrew},
  journal={Annual review of psychology},
  • T. Pettigrew
  • Published 1998
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Annual review of psychology
Allport specified four conditions for optimal intergroup contact: equal group status within the situation, common goals, intergroup cooperation and authority support. Varied research supports the hypothesis, but four problems remain. 1. A selection bias limits cross-sectional studies, since prejudiced people avoid intergroup contact. Yet research finds that the positive effects of cross-group friendship are larger than those of the bias. 2. Writers overburden the hypothesis with facilitating… Expand
Recent advances in intergroup contact theory
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Measures of intergroup contact
Allport’s (1954) ‘contact hypothesis’ proposed that intergroup contact is a powerful means for improving intergroup attitudes. Subsequent theory and research has developed this hypothesis into aExpand
Intergroup Contact: The Past, Present, and the Future
The Contact Hypothesis has long been considered one of psychology’s most effective strategies for improving intergroup relations. In this article, we review the history of the development of theExpand
The Irony of Harmony Intergroup Contact Can Produce False Expectations for
Positive intergroup contact has been a guiding framework for research on reducing intergroup tension and for interventions aimed at that goal. We propose that beyond improvingattitudestowardtheExpand
Beyond the optimal contact strategy: a reality check for the contact hypothesis.
The authors critique some research practices that have come to dominate the field of contact and argue that these practices have limited the contact hypothesis both as an explanation of the intergroup dynamics of desegregation and as a framework for promoting social psychological change. Expand
Contact Capacity and Its Effect on Intergroup Relations
Although intergroup contact is an effective means to improve intergroup attitudes, it does not always have a positive impact on them. This study introduces contact capacity as a factor that mayExpand
How Can Intergroup Interaction Be Bad If Intergroup Contact Is Good? Exploring and Reconciling an Apparent Paradox in the Science of Intergroup Relations
A mathematical model is introduced by which the findings of the two literatures on intergroup interaction and intergroup contact can be reconciled and it is believed that adopting this model will streamline thinking in the field and will generate integrative new research in which investigators examine how a person’s experiences with diversity unfold. Expand


Generalized Intergroup Contact Effects on Prejudice
The intergroup contact hypothesis is tested with self-reports of 3,806 survey respondents in seven 1988 national probability samples of France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and West Germany. WithExpand
The Contact Hypothesis
This survey study involving 1,357 students attending a multi-cultural high school explored how thefeatures identified by the contact hypothesis reduce intergroup bias. Specifically, the studyExpand
The Contact Hypothesis Reconsidered: Effects of the Atypical Outgroup Member on the Outgroup Stereotype
The contact hypothesis assumes that contact with pleasant outgroup members will help to change negative stereotypes of that outgroup. However, this assumption is doubtful, because it is claimed byExpand
Changing attitudes through intergroup contact: the effects of group membership salience
Two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that heightened membership salience, achieved by increasing the prototypicality of particular outgroup members during cooperative intergroup contact,Expand
Cooperation and the reduction of intergroup bias: The role of reward structure and social orientation ☆
Abstract Two studies report a test of aspects of Brewer and Miller's (1984) model of the effects of cooperative contact on intergroup discrimination. Study 1 tested the hypothesis that conditionsExpand
The extended contact effect: Knowledge of cross-group friendships and prejudice.
The extended contact hypothesis proposes that knowledge that an in-group member has a close relationship with an out-group member can lead to more positive intergroup attitudes. Proposed mechanismsExpand
Social categorization and behavioral episodes: A cognitive analysis of the effects of intergroup contact.
The effects of intergroup contact on stereotypic beliefs, it is argued, depend upon (1) the potential susceptibility of those beliefs to disconfirming information and the degree to which the contactExpand
Intergroup contact: The typical member and the exception to the rule
Abstract Three studies examined the role of the perceived typicalness of an out-group member on her effectiveness in improving evaluations of her group. Subjects were students at two adjacentExpand
Cooperation, ethnic salience and generalization of interethnic attitudes
This study compared the effectiveness of three theoretically-based conditions of intergroup cooperation in bringing about generalization of ethnic outgroup attitudes from a cooperation partner to theExpand
Expectation States Theory has been in use since 1968 as the basis for applied research on race and its effect on interracial interaction (Berger et al 1980). The theory can be used to describe theExpand