Eryngium foetidum suppresses inflammatory mediators produced by macrophages.
PURPOSE The human mimecan/osteoglycin promoter contains multiple interferon-stimulated response elements (ISRE) and interferon-gamma-activation sites (GAS). ISRE and GAS motifs are present in a variety of interferon (IFN)-inducible genes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether IFN-gamma affects mimecan gene expression and, if so, to determine the cis-elements and transcription factors that mediate its action. METHODS Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to investigate whether nuclear proteins from IFN-gamma-treated cells bind to regions of the human mimecan promoter containing ISRE sites. Incubation of nuclear extracts with specific antibodies was used to identify transcription factors that bind to these sites. Transcriptional activity of the promoter was evaluated by transient transfections of human mimecan promoter/luciferase reporter constructs into corneal keratocytes and non-corneal cells. Co-transfection experiments were used to study the role of transcription factors that bind ISRE elements in the promoter and mediate the IFN-gamma response. Expression of mRNAs was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Using probes that correspond to two ISRE sites located in the first intron of the human mimecan gene, we detected specific DNA-protein complexes with nuclear extracts from IFN-gamma-treated cells. Formation of DNA-protein complexes was abrogated by competition with unlabeled probe and one of the complexes was supershifted by the anti-interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) antibody. Interestingly, when probe that corresponds to a conserved E-box (CACATG) in the proximal promoter and nuclear extracts from IFN-gamma-treated cells were used in EMSA, increased binding of upstream stimulatory factor-1 (USF-1) was observed. Co-transfection of a mimecan promoter construct that contained the entire first intron with IRF-1, or with both IRF-1 and USF-1 expression plasmids, suppressed luciferase activity of the promoter in corneal keratocytes and T-47D cells. In contrast, co-transfection experiments with IRF-2, or with both IRF-2 and USF-1, led to increased luciferase activity of the same promoter construct. RT-PCR analyses demonstrate that IFN-gamma rapidly and transiently suppresses mimecan expression and induces IRF-1 and IRF-2 mRNAs in bovine corneal keratocytes. CONCLUSIONS IRF-1 binds to ISRE sites, located in the first intron of the human mimecan gene, and negatively regulates mimecan expression at the level of transcription. Consistent with these observations, an inverse correlation between the expression of mimecan and IRF-1 in bovine corneal keratocytes and non-corneal cells was demonstrated. IRF-2 positively regulates mimecan transcription in corneal keratocytes. Because the intact E-box in the proximal promoter was required for IRF-1 and IRF-2 effects on mimecan transcription, potential direct or indirect interactions between USF-1 and IRF-1 and IRF-2 are likely.