Dose distributions calculated by six different treatment planning systems (TPSs), used by the hospitals in Finland or in Russia, were compared with measured dose distributions. Five typical cases of irradiation were selected: regular fields, oblique incidence, irregular field, wedge field and inhomogeneity in a water equivalent phantom. The beam data for each TPS where those pertaining to the beam where the comparative relative measurements were performed. The results indicate that the dose distributions produced by different TPSs can differ from each other as well as from the measured dose distributions up to a level which is not acceptable in terms of the ICRU recommendations. Greatest differences seem to be related to the omission or undue consideration of the scatter components of the beam.