Three experiments were performed to determine whether human prolactin (hPr) affects prostatic uptake and metabolism of testosterone (T). 1) Patients with prostatic cancer were infused twice with radio-labelled androgens, the first time with basal hPr, the second time with oral thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH)-elevated hPr. In 5/7, significant increases in metabolic clearance of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and in conversion of T to DHT accompanied increased hPr. 2) The incorporation of labelled T into minced benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) tissue from subjects with high (40 ng/ml) hPr was measured and was found to be more than twice the uptake into tissue from those with low hPr (6.5±1.9 ng/ml). 3) Uptake and metabolism in vivo of a bolus of 3H-T by BPH and carcinomatous prostates was measured and was far greater in subjects whose hPr was elevated by chlorpromazine than in untreated controls. It is concluded that prolactin increases prostatic uptake and metabolism of T. It is suggested that the best management of prostatic cancer should include depletion of prolactin as well as androgen.