Dendritic cells are crucial for maintenance of tertiary lymphoid structures in the lung of influenza virus–infected mice
Ectopic expression of CC chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21) in the thyroid leads to development of lymphoid structures that resemble those observed in Hashimoto thyroiditis. Deletion of the inhibitor of differentiation 2 (Id2) gene, essential for generation of CD3-CD4+ lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells and development of secondary lymphoid organs, did not affect formation of tertiary lymphoid structures. Rather, mature CD3+CD4+ T cells were critical for the development of tertiary lymphoid structures. The initial stages of this process involved interaction of CD3+CD4+ T cells with DCs, the appearance of peripheral-node addressin-positive (PNAd+) vessels, and production of chemokines that recruit lymphocytes and DCs. These findings indicate that the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures does not require Id2-dependent conventional LTis but depends on a program initiated by mature CD3+CD4+ T cells.