Replication slippage of the thermophilic DNA polymerases B and D from the Euryarchaeota Pyrococcus abyssi
The replication initiator protein of bacteriophage f1 (gene II protein) binds to the phage origin and forms two complexes that are separable by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Complex I is formed at low gene II protein concentrations, and shows protection from DNase I of about 25 base-pairs (from position +2 to +28 relative to the nicking site) at the center of the minimal origin sequence. Complex II is produced at higher concentrations of the protein, and has about 40 base-pairs (from -7 to +33) protected. On the basis of gel mobility, complex II appears to contain twice the amount of gene II protein as does complex I. The 40 base-pair sequence protected in complex II corresponds to the minimal origin sequence as determined by in-vivo analyses. The central 15 base-pair sequence (from +6 to +20) of the minimal origin consists of two repeats in inverted orientation. This sequence, when cloned into a plasmid, can form complex I, but not complex II. We call this 15 base-pair element the core binding sequence for gene II protein. Methylation interference with the formation of complex I by the wild-type origin indicates that gene II protein contacts six guanine residues located in a symmetric configuration within the core binding sequence. Formation of complex II requires, in addition to the core binding sequence, the adjacent ten base-pair sequence on the right containing a third homologous repeat. A methylation interference experiment performed on complex II indicates that gene II protein interacts homologously with the three repeats. In complex II, gene II protein protects from DNase I digestion not only ten base-pairs on the right but also ten base-pairs on the left of the sequence that is protected in complex I. Footprint analyses of various deletion mutants indicate that the left-most ten base-pairs are protected regardless of their sequence. The site of nicking by gene II protein is located within this region. A model is presented for the binding reaction involving both protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions.