The Interplay of Cofactor Interactions and Post-translational Modifications in the Regulation of the AAA+ ATPase p97
Salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) is an important regulator of cAMP response element-binding protein-mediated gene expression in various cell types and is the only AMP-activated protein kinase family member known to interact with the p97/valosin-containing protein (VCP) ATPase. Previously, we have demonstrated that SIK2 can regulate autophagy when proteasomal function is compromised. Here we report that physical and functional interactions between SIK2 and p97/VCP underlie the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD). SIK2 co-localizes with p97/VCP in the ER membrane and stimulates its ATPase activity through direct phosphorylation. Although the expression of wild-type recombinant SIK2 accelerated the degradation and removal of ERAD substrates, the kinase-deficient variant conversely had no effect. Furthermore, down-regulation of endogenous SIK2 or mutation of the SIK2 target site on p97/VCP led to impaired degradation of ERAD substrates and disruption of ER homeostasis. Collectively, these findings highlight a mechanism by which the interplay between SIK2 and p97/VCP contributes to the regulation of ERAD in mammalian cells.