Polymorphisms of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk: A HuGE Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increases with the severity of hepatic inflammation. Interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are proinflammatory cytokines with multiple biological effects and may play essential roles in inflammation-linked tumor development. We conducted a case-control study including 209 incident HCC cases and two control groups (275 hospital controls and 381 patients with chronic liver disease [CLD] without HCC) to investigate whether IL-1B and TNF-A gene polymorphisms influence HCC susceptibility with any interaction with alcohol and tobacco. By comparing HCC cases with CLD patients, we found that IL-1B -31T/C polymorphism was associated with HCC risk among never drinkers and current smokers; adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for C/T and T/T genotypes compared with C/C genotype were 1.70 (0.76-3.77) and 2.46 (1.05-5.76) (P trend=0.03), respectively, among never drinkers, and 1.53 (0.60-3.99) and 2.54 (0.81-7.95) (P trend=0.11), respectively, among current smokers. Similarly, HCC risk associated with heavy alcohol intake and current smoking differed by this polymorphism among CLD patients. IL-1B -31T/C polymorphism may modify HCC risk in relation to alcohol intake or smoking.