Fractions obtained from pine cone extract (PCE) of Pinus parviflora Sieb. et Zucc. have been shown to suppress the growth of influenza virus. The inhibitory effects of one of the fractions, Fraction VII, on the formation of RNA-viral protein complex and the viral RNA synthesis were investigated. The formation of M1-RNA or NP-RNA complex was inhibited when M1 or NP was preincubated with the PCE fraction. The in vitro viral RNA synthesis was inhibited by the PCE fraction, while this inhibitory effect was titrated out by the increasing concentration of M1 protein. These results suggest that the major target of the PCE fraction was M1 protein.