Interaction between Mutualisms: Ant-tended butterflies exploit enemy-free space provided by ant-treehopper associations.

@article{Kaminski2010InteractionBM,
  title={Interaction between Mutualisms: Ant-tended butterflies exploit enemy-free space provided by ant-treehopper associations.},
  author={Lucas Augusto Kaminski and Andr{\'e} Victor Lucci Freitas and Paulo Sergio Lopes Oliveira},
  journal={The American naturalist},
  year={2010},
  volume={176 3},
  pages={322-34}
}
Although mutualisms have been intensively investigated, demonstration of indirect effects between co-occurring mutualistic systems is rare. For instance, the ecological consequences of co-occurrence of ant-tended insects on a plant have never been examined for survival effects on either trophobiont species. Here, we assess the selective pressures mediating co-occurrence of a facultative ant-tended butterfly (Parrhasius polibetes) with ant-tended treehoppers (Guayaquila xiphias) on Schefflera… CONTINUE READING
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