Interaction between Mutualisms: Ant-tended butterflies exploit enemy-free space provided by ant-treehopper associations.

Abstract

Although mutualisms have been intensively investigated, demonstration of indirect effects between co-occurring mutualistic systems is rare. For instance, the ecological consequences of co-occurrence of ant-tended insects on a plant have never been examined for survival effects on either trophobiont species. Here, we assess the selective pressures mediating… (More)
DOI: 10.1086/655427

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@article{Kaminski2010InteractionBM, title={Interaction between Mutualisms: Ant-tended butterflies exploit enemy-free space provided by ant-treehopper associations.}, author={Lucas Augusto Kaminski and Andr{\'e} V. L. Freitas and Paulo S Oliveira}, journal={The American naturalist}, year={2010}, volume={176 3}, pages={322-34} }