Inter- and intra-observer variability in detection of patent foramen ovale with contrast echocardiography.

@article{Cross1993InterAI,
  title={Inter- and intra-observer variability in detection of patent foramen ovale with contrast echocardiography.},
  author={Steve Cross and Lesley Thomson and Sharon A. Evans and Hee Sook Lee and Kevin P Jennings},
  journal={European heart journal},
  year={1993},
  volume={14 3},
  pages={388-90}
}
Patent foramen ovale is detected in-vivo using the technique of contrast echocardiography. A positive test depends on the ability of an observer to recognise micro-bubbles passing from the right to the left heart, and to differentiate them from background noise and/or chordae tendinae. To assess the inter- and intra-observer variability of this technique four observers reviewed independently, and on two separate occasions, 100 consecutive contrast studies stored on video tape. The proportions… CONTINUE READING