Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33)

@article{UkProspectiveDiabetesStudyGroup1998IntensiveB,
  title={Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33)},
  author={Uk-Prospective-Diabetes-Study-Group},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={1998},
  volume={352},
  pages={837-853}
}
Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes.
TLDR
A strategy of intensive glucose control, involving gliclazide (modified release) and other drugs as required, that lowered the glycated hemoglobin value to 6.5% yielded a 10% relative reduction in the combined outcome of major macrovascular and microvascular events, primarily as a consequence of a 21%relative reduction in nephropathy.
Comparison of Metformin and Insulin Monotherapy with Combined Metformin and Insulin Therapy in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes with HbA1c > 7%.
TLDR
Therapy with insulin alone or with metformin in patients having poor glycemic control may be a useful and safe therapeutic approach in type 2 diabetes.
Cost-utility analyses of intensive blood glucose and tight blood pressure control in type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 72)
TLDR
The results provide an economic rationale for ensuring that care of patients with type 2 diabetes corresponds at least to the levels of these interventions, and each of the three policies evaluated has a lower cost per quality-adjusted life year gained than that of many other accepted uses of healthcare resources.
Management of type 2 diabetes with multiple oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin in primary care: retrospective cohort study.
TLDR
Many people with type 2 diabetes received inadequate monitoring and had poor glycaemic control, and intensive management is required to reduce the risk of microvascular complications.
DIABETIC MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS: AN OVERVIEW *
TLDR
Intensive therapy to achieve near-normal blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations significantly reduced the risk of microvascular complications of diabetes, when compared with conventional therapy.
Improvement of glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes: favourable changes in blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglycerides, but not in HDL cholesterol, fibrinogen, Von Willebrand factor and (pro)insulin.
TLDR
It is suggested that improvement in glycaemia in type 2 diabetes is not consistently associated with favourable changes in some cardiovascular risk indicators typically associated with diabetes, which may in part explain why antihyperglycaemic treatment does not clearly lower atherothrombotic disease risk.
BASAL INSULIN AS ADD-ON THERAPY TO ORAL GLUCOSE-LOWERING DRUGS IN INSULIN NAIVE PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN PRIMARY PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER
TLDR
The addition of basal insulin to oral antidiabetic drugs in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes patients in primary public health center achieved clinically improvements in glycaemic control with low risks of hypoglycaemia and non-significant body weightincrease.
Antidiabetic Drugs Present and Future
TLDR
There is evidence that, like metformin, thiazolidinediones also improve cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidaemia and fibrinolysis, and whether these differences will translate into clinical benefit remains to be seen.
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References

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Combined insulin and sulfonylurea therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetics with secondary failure to oral drugs: a one year follow-up.
TLDR
It is suggested that combining a sulfonylurea with insulin can be useful in insulin-requiring type-2 diabetics who still secrete some endogenous insulin.
Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group.
TLDR
The effects of intensive blood-glucose control with either sulphonylurea or insulin and conventional treatment on the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial were compared.
Effect of troglitazone in insulin-treated patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Troglitazone and Exogenous Insulin Study Group.
TLDR
When given in conjunction with insulin, troglitazone improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The Effect of Intensive Treatment of Diabetes on the Development and Progression of Long‐Term Complications in Insulin‐Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
TLDR
Intensive therapy effectively delays the onset and slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in patients with IDDM.
Effects of Metformin in Patients with Poorly Controlled, Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
TLDR
The probable clinical importance of the combination of metformin and insulin includes improvements in gly glucose control and insulin sensitivity and avoidance of the weight gain that often accompanies improved glycemic control.
Combined Therapy of Insulin and Tolazamide Decreases Insulin Requirement and Serum Triglycerides in Obese Patients with Noninsulin‐Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
TLDR
NPH plus tolazamide therapy as compared with NPH alone lowers insulin requirement in obese, type II diabetic women without significant alteration in glycemic control, and decreases serum triglyceride levels.
A comparison of troglitazone and metformin on insulin requirements in euglycemic intensively insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients.
TLDR
Metformin has no effect on insulin-stimulated glucose disposal independent of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, and troglitazone has greater insulin-sparing effects than metformin in CSII-treated euglycemic patients.
Less nocturnal hypoglycemia and better post-dinner glucose control with bedtime insulin glargine compared with bedtime NPH insulin during insulin combination therapy in type 2 diabetes. HOE 901/3002 Study Group.
TLDR
Use of insulin glargine instead of NPH in insulin combination regimens in type 2 diabetes is associated with less nocturnal hypoglycemia and lower post-dinner glucose levels, consistent with peakless and longer duration of action of insulinglargine compared with NPH.
Comparison of Different Insulin Regimens in Elderly Patients With NIDDM
OBJECTIVE To compare the metabolic effects of three different frequently used regimens of insulin administration on blood glucose control and serum lipids, and the costs associated with this
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